THE HUMAN BODY

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 The human body is about two-third of oxygen

 Oxygen’s influence and its role in Human Body

The oxygen is absorbed by the blood stream in the lungs, being then transported to the cells where an elaborated change process takes place. Oxygen plays a vital role in the breathing processes and in the metabolism of the living organisms. Probably, the only living cells that do not need oxygen are some anaerobic bacteria that obtain energy from other metabolic processes. The nutrient compounds, inside of the cell, are oxidized through complex enzymatic processes. This oxidation is the source of energy of most of the animals, mainly of mammals. The products are carbon dioxide and water (exhaled air has a relative humidity of 100%), which are eliminated by the human body through the lungs.


KNOW YOUR BODY ELEMENTS

OXYGEN – 61%
CARBON – 23%
HYDROGEN – 10%
NITROGEN – 2.6%
CALCIUM – 1.4%
PHOSPHEROUS -1.1%
MAGNESIUM -0.50%
POTTASIUM -0.2%
SODIUM -0.14%
SULPHUR -0.2%


THE BLOOD CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

circulatoryBlood, is a fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries. An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.5 liters) of blood. The blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes. The colorless fluid of the blood, or plasma, carries the red and white blood cells, platelets, waste products, and various other cells and substances.

The blood components

Red blood cells are very small and shaped like tiny doughnuts each contains molecule of a red coloured chemical called haemoglobin Red Cells give blood its colour and accounts for up to 40% of its volume. The main function of these cells is to carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body and remove waste products such as carbon dioxide. Haemoglobin contains the element Iron, making it an excellent vehicle for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide. As blood passes through the lungs, oxygen molecules attach to the haemoglobin. As the blood passes through the body’s tissue, the haemoglobin releases the oxygen to the cells. The empty haemoglobin molecules then bond with the tissue’s carbon dioxide or other waste gases, transporting it away.

 


THE WBC

wbcWhite blood cells vary in shape because they play a variety of roles when defending against infections White blood cells only make up about 1 percent of blood, but their small number belies their immense importance. They play a vital role in the body’s immune system-the primary defence mechanism against invading bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. They often accomplish this goal through direct attack, which usually involves identifying the invading organism as foreign, attaching to it, and then destroying it. This process is referred to as phagocytises.

 

 

 

 


PLATELETS

plateletsThe smallest cells in the blood are the platelets, which are designed for a single purpose-to begin the process of coagulation, or forming a clot, whenever a blood vessel is broken. As soon as an artery or vein is injured, the platelets in the area of the injury begin to clump together and stick to the edges of the cut. Blood clotting (technically “blood coagulation”) is the process by which (liquid) blood is transformed into a solid state. This blood clotting is a complex process involving many clotting factors (incl. calcium ions, enzymes, platelets, damaged tissues) activating each other.

 

 

 

 

 


CLOTTING FACTORS

clot

1. Formation of Prothrombinase Prothrombinase can be formed in two ways, depending of which of two “systems” or “pathways” apply. These are Intrinsic System This is initiated by liquid blood making contact with a foreign surface, i.e. something that is not part of the body; or Extrinsic System This is initiated by liquid blood making contact with damaged tissue. Both the intrinsic and the extrinsic systems involve interactions between coagulation factors. These coagulation factors have individual names but are often referred to by a standardized set of Roman Numerals, e.g. Factor VIII (antihaemophilic factor), Factor IX (Christmas factor).

2. Prothrombin converted into the enzyme Thrombin Prothrombinase (formed in stage 1.) converts prothrombin, which is a plasma protein that is formed in the liver, into the enzyme thrombin.

3. Fibrinogen (soluble) converted to Fibrin (insoluble) In turn, thrombin converts fibrinogen (which is also a plasma protein synthesized in the liver) into fibrin. Fibrin is insoluble and forms the threads that bind the clot

 


bloodHealth is dependent almost entirely upon a pure, healthy blood and general hum oral circulation. Every organ, nerve, tissue and cell depends on vital blood and humoral fluid for nourishment and elimination of wastes. When these vital fluids are impaired, the system begins a general degeneration and alteration from the norm. The object of respiration is to bring atmospheric oxygen in close relationship with the haemoglobin of the blood and permit the interchange of oxygen with carbon dioxide, thus eliminating this end product of oxidation along with other products in minute quantities. In the process of respiration, waste products are exposed to the action of oxygen and they are combusted, producing body heat. In the living organism, heat is continually being generated through the chemical action of oxygen upon carbon. When the blood receives sufficient oxygen to unite with the carbon, carbon dioxide is formed, which is in a suitable state to be eliminated. The process of oxidation is complete, the body temperature is maintained at normal, the organs perform their functions properly and the system is in a condition to resist the influence of microbes.

When, however, an insufficient amount of oxygen is received by the blood, carbon is incompletely burned, and carbon monoxide is produced. Through its poisonous influence, the system becomes debilitated, or ‘run down.’ Carbon monoxide is an irritant to the nervous system, it attaches to the haemoglobin in red blood cells, and it interferes with organ functions. The body temperature is reduced below normal which renders the system incapable of resisting the influence of various bacteria, viruses and yeast. Disease is the result. Subnormal temperatures indicate under-oxidation, or hypoxia. The under oxidized person will present a host of symptoms: headache, backache, insomnia, vertigo, constipation, asthenia, anemia, and non-specific gastro-intestinal upsets. Under-oxidation renders the system susceptible to a multiplicity of disorders, which will worsen and become chronic over time. Scientists long ago recognized the great oxidizing and antiseptic properties of ozone

 


CELLULAR RESPIRATION

cellresMolecular oxygen, O2, is essential for cellular respiration in all aerobic organisms. Oxygen is used as an electron acceptor in mitochondria to generate chemical energy.

After being carried in blood to a body tissue in need of oxygen, O2 is handed-off to an enzyme (monooxygenase) that also has an active site with an atom of iron. The enzyme uses oxygen to catalyze many oxidation reactions in the body (metabolism).

Carbon dioxide, a waste product, is released from the cell and into the blood, where it combines with bicarbonate and hemoglobin for transport to the lungs. Blood circulates back to the lungs and the process repeats.

Appropriate levels of oxygen are vital to support cell respiration. Oxygen plays an important role in the energy metabolism of living organisms. The living cell is the site of tremendous biochemical activity called metabolism.

This is the process of chemical and physical change which goes on continually in the human body: build-up of new tissue, replacement of old tissue, conversion of food to energy, disposal of waste materials, reproduction – all the activities that we characterize as “life.”

Research shows that cells have only a “limited number” of cell divisions possible in a human lifetime. Studies show that by the time you’re 20 most of the cells that make up your body have used up half of the divisions available in their cell lifespan. By the time you’re 40, there are maybe only 30% of your possible cell divisions left. When the cells use up their natural allotted cell divisions, the end is death!

A small part of the waste that comes from our body cells is watery, or easily dissolved in water; Furthermore, this is transported in the blood to a specific set of filter organs—the liver and the kidneys—and poured out of the body as the urine. Another part of waste is passed off through the skin in the form of watery vapor as perspiration, or sweat. But part of the waste can be gotten rid of only by burning, and what we call burning is another name for combining with oxygen, or to use one word—oxidation; Moreover, this is precisely the purpose of the carrying of oxygen by the little red blood cells from the lungs to the deeper parts of the body—to burn up, or oxidize, these waste materials which would otherwise poison our cells. When they are burnt, or oxidized, they become almost harmless. While oxygen supports our life, and “oxidizes” or “burns” food to create energy and heat for our bodies, certain types of altered oxygen molecules called “Free Radicals” which are ever-present in our bodies, will damage our own cells and even our DNA, causing degeneration and diseases such as cancer.

Oxygen is found in almost all bio molecules that are important to (or generated by) life. Only a few common complex bio molecules, such as squalene and the carotenes, contain no oxygen. Of the organic compounds with biological relevance, carbohydrates contain the largest proportion by mass of oxygen. All fats, fatty acids, amino acids, and proteins contain oxygen (due to the presence of carbonyl groups in these acids and their ester residues). “The molecules of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, iron, phosphorus, calcium, and so on, in a living body, are themselves no more alive than the same molecules in inorganic matter.Nearly nine tenths of a living body is water;

Ozone is one of the most energetic and useful agents known to science. Its therapeutic action is due to oxygenation of the blood by the loose molecule (free radical) of oxygen in the O3 compound. It is carried to the various organs and tissues of the body and absorbed, thus oxidizing the waste products, and facilitating their elimination. In other words, ozone increases the metabolism without the expenditure of vital energy and special stress should be laid on the fact that ozone is a NATURAL remedy.

By mass, human cells consist of 65-90% water (H2O), and a significant portion is composed of carbon-containing organic molecules. Oxygen therefore contributes a majority of a human body’s mass, followed by carbon. 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of the six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.


STRANGE BUT TRUE

strangeHere are some weird and fascinating facts about our body.

Your brain uses 20% of the oxygen that enters your circulatory system:
Your brain simply makes up about 2% of the body volume, yet it uses much more oxygen than any other organ within the body, making it extremely susceptible to damage associated with oxygen deprivation. Hence breathe deep to keep your brain happy and swimming in oxygenated cells.

The brain is 80% water:
The human brain isn’t the solid, greyish mass you’ve viewed on Television. Living brain tissue is a soft, pink as well as jelly-like organ, thanks to the high level of blood as well as water content of the tissue. Therefore the next time you are feeling dull drink water to keep your brain hydrated.

Your fingernails grow almost 4 times quicker than toenails:
The nails which get the most exposure and tend to be used most frequently grow the fastest. On an average, the nails on the toes and fingers grow about one-tenth of an inch each month.

Human hair is practically indestructible:
Besides its flammability, the human hair decomposes at an extremely slow rate and is almost non-disintegrative. Hair cannot be destroyed with cold, water, change in climate, or any other natural causes and it’s resistant to numerous sorts of acids and corrosive acids.

A women’s heart beats quicker than men’s:
The main cause for this is merely that on average women seem to be smaller than males and have less mass to pump blood. However women’s and men’s hearts actually act fairly differently, particularly when going through trauma like a heart attack.

The small intestine is the largest internal organ:
Despite being known as the smaller of the two intestines, your small intestine is actually four times as long as an average adults height.

Scientists have mentioned more than five hundred different functions of the liver:
You may not think a lot about your liver except following a long night of drinking, but the liver is one of the body’s hardest working organs. Some of the functions that your liver performs are: bile production, breaking down of red blood cells, detoxification, and plasma protein synthesis.

Coughs clock in at around 60 miles per hour:
Flu viruses as well as colds spread around the office and also the classroom rapidly during the cold and flu months it is advised to take care and have medicines if caught with serious cold or flu. With sixty miles per hour coughs spraying viruses far and wide, it’s no surprise.

Females blink twice as many times as compared to men:
The average individual, man or female, blinks about thirteen times in a minute.

The jawbone is the hardest bone present in the human body:
The jawbone is one of the most sturdy as well as hard to break bones in the body.

The width of your arm span extended is the length of your entire body:
Whilst not exactly down to the last mm, your human arm span is a fairly good estimator of your height

. The body generates enough heat in half an hour to bring water to a boil:
Our body systems expend a large amount of calories keeping us at a steady ninety eight point six degrees, which is enough to boil water